Stone disease is very prevalent. It is estimated that 10% of the population will develop stone disease in their lifetime. A person who develops a kidney stone has a 50% risk of developing another stone in the next 10 years.
Yes. There are various types of stones – calcium oxalate, uric acid, triple phosphate, calcium phosphate and cystine stones.
Uric acid stones that are small can be dissolved with medication if they do not cause obstruction (pain, fever).
Recurrent stone formers should get their stone analysed to evaluate the type of stone. They must also get a 24 hour urine analysis to evaluate why they are forming recurrent stones.
General advice is to drink plenty of water, reduce salt in the diet and reduce animal protein. It is important to have a normal intake of calcium.
A high intake of animal protein can increase stone formation. Avoid large quantities of meat, eggs and dairy products.
Do not add salt to your food at the table.
Tips to help you increase your fluid intake:
Specific advice for certain stone types –
Individuals who are overweight also have high production of uric acid, therefore losing weight is beneficial.
There are three treatment options –
Stones can be treated provided patients do not have a concurrent infection. If there are signs of infection (fever, chills, etc) then drainage of the kidney as a temporary measure is necessary followed, at a later date, by definitive treatment of the stone.
ESWL cannot be done in pregnancy, patients on blood thinning medication (eg warfarin, xarelto, dabigatran, clopidogrel, brillanta), very overweight individuals.