Our uro-onology services offers consultation, diagnosis and management for urological cancers affecting the kidneys, ureter, bladder, prostate, penis and testes.
We offer the procedures listed below
PSA stands for prostate specific antigen. It is a protein produced by the prostate gland and released in the blood. Prostate is a small gland situated at the mouth of the urinary bladder essential for producing semen. PSA test involves testing the blood for levels of this protein.
PSA screening is done to assess the risk of prostate cancer. The commonest cause for its rise is due to non-cancerous reasons. The non-cancerous causes are urinary tract infection, recent instrumentation or recent sexual activity.
Bicycle riding does not cause a rise in PSA levels.
The most benefit is seen in those with the highest risk of prostate cancer. These include those with two or more first relatives with prostate cancer. A shared decision-making is necessary after discussing the potential risks and benefits of screening with your general practitioner.
Generally higher the PSA higher is the risk for prostate cancer. We recommend a consultation with a Urologist to discuss this further. You might need to have a prostate biopsy.
This is a day case procedure (under anaesthesia) where a small tissue sample of the prostate is taken from different zones of the prostate to rule out prostate cancer.
The various methods are –
Depending on the size of the prostate gland, its feel and prior investigations (MRI prostate) the Urologist will decide the best way to biopsy the prostate.
Prostate cancer is graded according to the ISUP (International Society of Uro-pathology) classification from grades 1-5. The higher the grade the more aggressive is the cancer. Gleason grading is an older nomenclature for grading of prostate cancer and some urologists still use this classification.
Prostate cancer is a slow growing cancer and survival is better than most other cancers even in the advanced stage due to the availability of multiple new agents for treatment.
These patients can be cured of their cancer in the majority of cases.
The treatment options include –
These patients have progression of cancer either in organs around the prostate or at distant sites. The options for treatment include –
Blood in the urine can be associated with bladder cancer and needs evaluation. Non-cancerous reasons for blood in the urine can be due to urine infection, trauma, bleeding from an enlarged prostate and blood disorders (e.g. sickle cell disease, clotting disorders, anticoagulant and anti-platelet drugs).
Anyone who gets blood in the urine must get evaluated to rule out the risk of bladder cancer.
1 in 5 adults with visible blood in the urine and 1 in 12 adults with non-visible blood in the urine are subsequently discovered to have bladder cancer.
A thorough history, examination, urine cytology tests, medical imaging and cystoscopy is required.
This is a day case procedure whereby a small telescope is inserted via the urinary passage to visualize the urinary bladder for any abnormalities. If any suspicious lesions are seen then a biopsy is recommended.
Blood in the semen can occur due to urinary infection, injury during intercourse, blood disorders (e.g. sickle cell disease, clotting disorders, anticoagulant and anti-platelet drugs) or rarely due to cancer. This requires evaluation.
A thorough history and examination, urine test, PSA test and in some cases, a cystoscopy is necessary if associated with hematuria (blood in urine).
This is a day case procedure whereby a small telescope is inserted via the urinary passage to visualize the urinary bladder for any abnormalities. If any suspicious lesions are seen then a biopsy is recommended